Theory of Change

Changeroo - Theory of Change

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A strategic management approach to societal value creation

Changeroo assists organisations, programs and projects with a social mission to develop and manage high-quality Theories of Change. It allows you to together with stakeholders co-create Theories of Change, and to present these in an interactive and engaging way.

Theories of Change in a changing world

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In 2016 the CDRA convened and facilitated a group of twelve practitioners for six sessions of a “Theories of Change Learning and Study Circle”. This paper uses the experience as an opportunity to draw questions and insights and to further explore and provide comment on the phenomenon of Theory of Change that has become quite fashionable in the development world, positing some insights into its value and use.

Six Key Findings on the Use of Theories of Change in International Development

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Author: Valters, Craig
Publication date: August 2014

The Theory of Change approach is becoming a pervasive part of development practice: as an artefact, as a management tool, and increasingly as a common discourse which implementers use to explain and explore their interventions. In this blog post, Craig Valters introduces the 6 key findings of his research and paper.

Six Key Findings on the Use of Theories of Change in International Development

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Author: Valters, Craig
Publication date: August 2014

The Theory of Change approach is becoming a pervasive part of development practice: as an artefact, as a management tool, and increasingly as a common discourse which implementers use to explain and explore their interventions. In this blog post, Craig Valters introduces the 6 key findings of his research and paper.

3ie Working Paper. Theory-Based Impact Evaluation: Principles and Practice

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Author:  Howard White
Organization: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie)
Publication date: June 2009


Calls for rigorous impact evaluation has been accompanied by the quest for what works and why. Howard White identifies six principles for the successful application of the approach -- mapping out the causal chain (programme theory), understanding the context, anticipating heterogeneity, rigorous evaluation of impact using a credible counterfactual, rigorous factual analysis and using mixed methods.

3ie Working Paper. Theory-Based Impact Evaluation: Principles and Practice

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Author:  Howard White
Organization: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie)
Publication date: June 2009


Calls for rigorous impact evaluation has been accompanied by the quest for what works and why. Howard White identifies six principles for the successful application of the approach -- mapping out the causal chain (programme theory), understanding the context, anticipating heterogeneity, rigorous evaluation of impact using a credible counterfactual, rigorous factual analysis and using mixed methods.

ILAC Brief 26: Making causal claims

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Author: John Mayne
Publication date: 2012

An ongoing challenge in evaluation is the need to make credible causal claims linking observed results to the actions of interventions. This ILAC Brief argues the need for a different perspective on causality, where interventions are seen as contributory causes to certain results.

Making causal claims workshop 2013

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Author: Mayne, J.
Publication date: 2013

This powerpoint presentation on causal contribution was part of the Workshop on Impact, Learning and Innovation, held at the Institute of Development Studies, March 2013. The presentation focuses on intervention causality and draws attention to the notion of interventions not being a single but a contributory cause to certain results. Theories of Change are offered as a model to see the intervention as a contributing cause.

Making causal claims workshop 2013

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Author: Mayne, J.
Publication date: 2013

This powerpoint presentation on causal contribution was part of the Workshop on Impact, Learning and Innovation, held at the Institute of Development Studies, March 2013. The presentation focuses on intervention causality and draws attention to the notion of interventions not being a single but a contributory cause to certain results. Theories of Change are offered as a model to see the intervention as a contributing cause.

The web of institutionalisation: Assessing Uptake of ToC Thinking in Hivos

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This document introduces and elaborates on the notion of the 'web' of institutionalisation by Levy (1996) as part of the internal assessment by Hivos of the institutionalisation of Theory of Change thinking. It zooms in on the core elements, presented by Levy as the citizen's, policy, organizational and delivery sphere and lists guiding questions for each sphere, specifically formulated for Hivos' internal assessment.